The Righteous Mind: Why Good People are Divided by

The Righteous Mind: Why Good People are Divided by Politics and Religion IntroductionCan we all get along That appeal was made famous on May by Rodney King, a black man who had been beaten nearly to death by four Los Angeles police officers a year earlier The entire nation had seen a videotape of the beating, so when a jury failed to convict the officers, their acquittal triggered widespread outrage and six days of rioting in Los Angeles Fifty three people were killed andthan seven thousand buildings were torched Much of the mayhem was carried live news cameras tracked the action from helicopters circling overhead After a particularly horrific act of violence against a white truck driver, King was moved to make his appeal for peace Kings appeal is now so overused that it has become cultural kitsch, a catchphraseoften said for laughs than as a serious plea for mutual understanding I therefore hesitated to use Kings words as the opening line of this book, but I decided to go ahead, for two reasons The first is because most Americans nowadays are asking Kings question not about race relations but about political relations and the collapse of cooperation across party lines Many Americans feel as though the nightly news from Washington is being sent to us from helicopters circling over the city, delivering dispatches from the war zone The second reason I decided to open this book with an overused phrase is because King followed it up with something lovely, something rarely quoted As he stumbled through his television interview, fighting back tears and often repeating himself, he found these words Please, we can get along here We all can get along I mean, were all stuck here for a while Lets try to work it out This book is about why its so hard for us to get along We are indeed all stuck here for a while, so lets at least do what we can to understand why we are so easily divided into hostile groups, each one certain of its righteousness People who devote their lives to studying something often come to believe that the object of their fascination is the key to understanding everything Books have been published in recent years on the transformative role in human history played by cooking, mothering, wareven salt This is one of those books I study moral psychology, and Im going to make the case that morality is the extraordinary human capacity that made civilization possible I dont mean to imply that cooking, mothering, war, and salt were not also necessary, but in this book Im going to take you on a tour of human nature and history from the perspective of moral psychology By the end of the tour, I hope to have given you a new way to think about two of the most important, vexing, and divisive topics in human life politics and religion Etiquette books tell us not to discuss these topics in polite company, but I say go ahead Politics and religion are both expressions of our underlying moral psychology, and an understanding of that psychology can help to bring people together My goal in this book is to drain some of the heat, anger, and divisiveness out of these topics and replace them with awe, wonder, and curiosity We are downright lucky that we evolved this complex moral psychology that allowed our species to burst out of the forests and savannas and into the delights, comforts, and extraordinary peacefulness of modern societies in just a few thousand years My hope is that this book will make conversations about morality, politics, and religioncommon,civil, andfun, even in mixed company My hope is that it will help us to get along BORN TO BE RIGHTEOUSI could have titled this book The Moral Mind to convey the sense that the human mind is designed to do morality, just as its designed to do language, sexuality, music, and many other things described in popular books reporting the latest scientific findings But I chose the title The Righteous Mind to convey the sense that human nature is not just intrinsically moral, its also intrinsically moralistic, critical, and judgmental The word righteous comes from the old Norse word rettviss and the old English word rihtwis, both of which mean just, upright, virtuous This meaning has been carried into the modern English words righteous and righteousness, although nowadays those words have strong religious connotations because they are usually used to translate the Hebrew word tzedek Tzedek is a common word in the Hebrew Bible, often used to describe people who act in accordance with Gods wishes, but it is also an attribute of God and of Gods judgment of people which is often harsh but always thought to be just The linkage of righteousness and judgmentalism is captured in some modern definitions of righteous, such as arising from an outraged sense of justice, morality, or fair play The link also appears in the term self righteous, which means convinced of ones own righteousness, especially in contrast with the actions and beliefs of others narrowly moralistic and intolerant I want to show you that an obsession with righteousness leading inevitably to self righteousness is the normal human condition It is a feature of our evolutionary design, not a bug or error that crept into minds that would otherwise be objective and rational Our righteous minds made it possible for human beingsbut no other animalsto produce large cooperative groups, tribes, and nations without the glue of kinship But at the same time, our righteous minds guarantee that our cooperative groups will always be cursed by moralistic strife Some degree of conflict among groups may even be necessary for the health and development of any society When I was a teenager I wished for world peace, but now I yearn for a world in which competing ideologies are kept in balance, systems of accountability keep us all from getting away with too much, and fewer people believe that righteous ends justify violent means Not a very romantic wish, but one that we might actually achieve WHAT LIES AHEAD This book has three parts, which you can think of as three separate booksexcept that each one depends on the one before it Each part presents one major principle of moral psychology Part I is about the first principle Intuitions come first, strategic reasoning second Moral intuitions arise automatically and almost instantaneously, long before moral reasoning has a chance to get started, and those first intuitions tend to drive our later reasoning If you think that moral reasoning is something we do to figure out the truth, youll be constantly frustrated by how foolish, biased, and illogical people become when they disagree with you But if you think about moral reasoning as a skill we humans evolved to further our social agendasto justify our own actions and to defend the teams we belong tothen things will make a lotsense Keep your eye on the intuitions, and dont take peoples moral arguments at face value Theyre mostly post hoc constructions made up on the fly, crafted to advance one orstrategic objectives The central metaphor of these four chapters is that the mind is divided, like a rider on an elephant, and the riders job is to serve the elephant The rider is our conscious reasoningthe stream of words and images of which we are fully aware The elephant is the otherpercent of mental processesthe ones that occur outside of awareness but that actually govern most of our behavior I developed this metaphor in my last book, The Happiness Hypothesis, where I described how the rider and elephant work together, sometimes poorly, as we stumble through life in search of meaning and connection In this book Ill use the metaphor to solve puzzles such as why it seems like everyone else is a hypocrite and why political partisans are so willing to believe outrageous lies and conspiracy theories Ill also use the metaphor to show you how you can better persuade people who seem unresponsive to reason Part II is about the second principle of moral psychology, which is that theresto morality than harm and fairness The central metaphor of these four chapters is that the righteous mind is like a tongue with six taste receptors Secular Western moralities are like cuisines that try to activate just one or two of these receptorseither concerns about harm and suffering, or concerns about fairness and injustice But people have so many other powerful moral intuitions, such as those related to liberty, loyalty, authority, and sanctity Ill explain where these six taste receptors come from, how they form the basis of the worlds many moral cuisines, and why politicians on the right have a built in advantage when it comes to cooking meals that voters like Part III is about the third principle Morality binds and blinds The central metaphor of these four chapters is that human beings arepercent chimp and percent bee Human nature was produced by natural selection working at two levels simultaneously Individuals compete with individuals within every group, and we are the descendants of primates who excelled at that competition This gives us the ugly side of our nature, the one that is usually featured in books about our evolutionary origins We are indeed selfish hypocrites so skilled at putting on a show of virtue that we fool even ourselves But human nature was also shaped as groups competed with other groups As Darwin said long ago, the most cohesive and cooperative groups generally beat the groups of selfish individualists Darwins ideas about group selection fell out of favor in the s, but recent discoveries are putting his ideas back into play, and the implications are profound Were not always selfish hypocrites We also have the ability, under special circumstances, to shut down our petty selves and become like cells in a larger body, or like bees in a hive, working for the good of the group These experiences are often among the most cherished of our lives, although our hivishness can blind us to other moral concerns Our bee like nature facilitates altruism, heroism, war, and genocide Once you see our righteous minds as primate minds with a hivish overlay, you get a whole new perspective on morality, politics, and religion Ill show that our higher nature allows us to be profoundly altruistic, but that altruism is mostly aimed at members of our own groups Ill show that religion is probably an evolutionary adaptation for binding groups together and helping them to create communities with a shared morality It is not a virus or a parasite, as some scientists the New Atheists have argued in recent years And Ill use this perspective to explain why some people are conservative, others are liberal or progressive , and still others become libertarians People bind themselves into political teams that share moral narratives Once they accept a particular narrative, they become blind to alternative moral worlds A note on terminology In the United States, the word liberal refers to progressive or left wing politics, and I will use the word in this sense But in Europe and elsewhere, the word liberal is truer to its original meaningvaluing liberty above all else, including in economic activities When Europeans use the word liberal, they often mean somethinglike the American term libertarian, which cannot be placed easily on the left right spectrum Readers from outside the United States may want to swap in the words progressive or left wing whenever I say liberal In the coming chapters Ill draw on the latest research in neuroscience, genetics, social psychology, and evolutionary modeling, but the take home message of the book is ancient It is the realization that we are all self righteous hypocrites Why do you see the speck in your neighbors eye, but do not notice the log in your own eyeYou hypocrite, first take the log out of your own eye, and then you will see clearly to take the speck out of your neighbors eye Matthew Enlightenment or wisdom, if you prefer requires us all to take the logs out of our own eyes and then escape from our ceaseless, petty, and divisive moralism As the eighth century Chinese Zen master Sen tsan wrote The Perfect Way is only difficult for those who pick and choose Do not like, do not dislike all will then be clear Make a hairbreadth difference, and Heaven and Earth are set apart If you want the truth to stand clear before you, never be for or against The struggle between for and againstis the minds worst diseaseIm not saying we should live our lives like Sen tsan In fact, I believe that a world without moralism, gossip, and judgment would quickly decay into chaos But if we want to understand ourselves, our divisions, our limits, and our potentials, we need to step back, drop the moralism, apply some moral psychology, and analyze the game were all playingLet us now examine the psychology of this struggle between for and against It is a struggle that plays out in each of our righteous minds, and among all of our righteous groupsHaidt is looking forthan victory He s looking for wisdom That s what makes The Righteous Mind well worth hearinga landmark contribution to humanity s understanding of itself New York Times Book Review


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